Ian Apperly



Apperly, I.A. (2010). Mindreaders: the cognitive basis of Ňtheory of mindÓ. Hove: Psychology Press / Taylor & Francis Group.


Theory & Review papers

Mindreading and psycholinguistic approaches to perspective-taking: establishing common ground. Apperly, I.A. (2017) Topics in Cognitive Science. PDF


Can theory of mind grow up? Mindreading in adults, and its implications for the neuroscience and development of mindreading. Apperly, I.A. (2013) In Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Lombardo, M. (Eds.) Understanding Other Minds (3rd Edn.) PDF

How to construct a minimal theory of mind. Butterfill, S. & Apperly I.A. (2013). Mind and Language28(2) 606-637. PDF

The development of tool manufacture in humans: what helps young children make innovative tools? Chappell, J., Cutting, N. Apperly, I.A. & Beck, S.R., (2013) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B. 368,1630.

Understanding intentions: distinct processes for mirroring, representing and conceptualising. Chiavarino, C., Apperly, I.A., & Humphreys, G.W. (2012). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(5),  284-289. PDF

What is Ňtheory of mindÓ? Concepts, cognitive processes and individual differences. Apperly, I.A. (2012). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.65(5), 825-839. PDF

Do humans have two systems to track beliefs and belief-like states? Apperly, I.A. & Butterfill, S.A,, (2009). Psychological Review.116(4), 953-970. PDF

Studies of adults can inform accounts of theory of mind development.  Apperly, I.A., Samson, D., & Humphreys, G.W. (2009). Developmental Psychology, 45(1), 190-201. PDF

Beyond Simulation-Theory and Theory-Theory: Why social cognitive neuroscience should use its own concepts to study ŇTheory of MindÓ. Apperly, I.A., (2008). Cognition 107, 266-283. PDF

Domain-specificity and theory of mind: Evaluating evidence from neuropsychology. Apperly, I.A., Samson, D., & Humphreys, G.W. (2005).  Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9(12), 572-577. PDF


Empirical Articles:

Diametric effects of autism tendencies and psychosis proneness on attention control irrespective of task demands. Abu-Akel, A., Apperly, I., Spaniol, M. M., Geng, J. J., & Mevorach, C. (2018). Scientific reports8(1), 8478. PDF


Autism and psychosis: Clinical implications for depression and suicide. Upthegrove, R., Abu-Akel, A., Chisholm, K., Lin, A., Zahid, S., Pelton, M., ... & Wood, S. J. (2018). Schizophrenia research195, 80-85.


The cognitive demands of remembering a speakerŐs perspective and managing common ground size modulate 8- and 10-year-oldsŐ perspective-taking abilities. Zhao, L., Wang, J.J. & Apperly, I.A. (2018) Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 174, 130-149. PDF


Assessing the integrity of the cognitive processes involved in belief reasoning by means of two nonverbal tasks: Rationale, normative data collection and illustration with brain-damaged patients. Biervoye, A., Meert, G., Apperly, I.A. & Samson, D. (2018) PLoSOne 13(1): e0190295 PDF


Young children copy cumulative technological design in the absence of action information. Reindl, E., Beck, S.R., Apperly, I.A. & Tennie, C. (2017). Scientific Reports, 7, 1788. PDF


Using perspective to resolve reference: the impact of cognitive load and motivation. Cane, J. E., Ferguson, H. J., Apperly, I. A. (2017). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 43(4), 591-610. PDF


Eye-tracking reveals the cost of switching between self and other perspectives in a visual perspective-taking task. Ferguson, H.J., Apperly, I.A. & Cane, J. (2017) Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 70, 8, 1646-1660.. PDF


Just One Look: Direct Gaze Disrupts Visual Working Memory. Wang, J.J. & Apperly, I.A. (2017) Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 24(2), 393-399. PDF


Autism tendencies and psychosis proneness interactively modulate saliency cost. Abu-Akel, A., Apperly, I.A., Wood, S., Hansen, P. & Mevorach, C. (2017) Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23(1), 142-151. PDF


Individual differences in childrenŐs representation of self and other in joint action. Milward, S., Kita, S. & Apperly, I.A. (2017). Child Development. 88(3), 964-978. PDF


Current knowledge on the role of the Inferior Frontal Gyrus in Theory of Mind - a response to Schurz and Tholen (2016). Hartwright, C.E., Hansen, P. & Apperly I.A. (2016) Cortex.PDF


Autism and psychosis traits diametrically modulate the right temporo-parietal junction. Abu-Akel, A., Apperly, I., Wood, S., Hansen, P. (2016) Social Neuroscience, 12 (5), 506-518. PDF


Structural Morphology in Resting State Networks Predict the Effect of Theta Burst Stimulation in False Belief Reasoning. Hartwright, C.E., Hardwick, R., Apperly I.A., & Hansen, P. (2016) Human Brain Mapping 37, 3502–3514. PDF


Cognitive Architecture of Belief Reasoning in Children and Adults: A Primer On The Two-Systems Account. Low, J. Apperly, I.A., Butterfill, S.A. & Rakoczy, H. (2016). Child Development Perspectives 10(3) 184-189. PDF


Young children spontaneously invent wild great apesŐ tool-use behaviours. Reindl, E., Beck, S.R., Apperly, I.A. & Tennie, C. (2016). Proc. Royal Soc. London B 283: 20152402. PDF


Individual differences in childrenŐs innovative problem solving are not predicted by divergent thinking or executive functions. Beck, S.R., Williams, C., Cutting, N., Apperly, I.A., & Chappell, J. (2016). Phil. Trans. B. 371: 20150190 PDF


Is Goal Ascription Possible in Minimal Mindreading? Butterfill, S. & Apperly I.A. (2016). [Response to commentary on Apperly & Butterfill, 2009] Psychological Review, 123(2), 228–233. PDF


IŐve got your number: Spontaneous perspective-taking in an interactive task. Surtees, A., Apperly, I.A. & Samson, D. (2016). Cognition, 150 (43-52). PDF


Unintentional perspective-taking calculates whether something is seen, but not how it is seen. Surtees, A. Samson, D. & Apperly, I.A. (2016). Cognition, 146, 97-105. PDF


Language complexity modulates 8- and 10-year-olds' success at using their theory of mind abilities in a communication task. Wang, J.J., Frisson, S., Ali, M. & Apperly, I.A. (2015).Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. PDF


Altercentric interference in level-1 visual perspective-taking reflects the ascription of mental states, not sub-mentalisingFurlanetto, T., Becchio, C., Samson, D. & Apperly, I.A. (2016) Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. PDF


Perspective-taking abilities in the balance between autism tendencies and psychosis proneness. Abu-Akel, A., Wood, S., Hansen, P., Apperly, I. (2015). . Proc. Royal Soc. London B, (282), 1808. PDF


Is It Always Me First? Effects of Self-Tagging on Third-Person Perspective-Taking. Mattan, P., Quinn, K.A., Apperly, I.A., Sui, J. & Rotshtein, P. (2015) Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 279 PDF


Task-constraints and semantic association facilitates perspective use during discourse interpretation. Ferguson, H.J., Apperly, I.A., Ahmad, J. & Bindermann, M. (2015). Cognition, 139, 50-70. PDF


The special case of self-perspective inhibition in mental, but not non-mental, representation. Hartwright, C., Apperly, I.A., & Hansen, P.C. (2015) Neuropsychologia (67), 183–192. PDF


Is tool-making knowledge robust over time and across problems? Beck, S.R., Cutting, N., Apperly, I.A., Demery, Z. Iliffe, L., Rishi, S. & Chappell, J. (2014) Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1395. PDF


The Development of Co-representation Effects in a Joint Task: Do Children Represent a Co-actor? Milward, S., Kita, S. & Apperly, I.A. (2014). Cognition.132 (3), 269-279 PDF


Why CanŐt Children Piece Their Knowledge Together? The Puzzling Difficulty of Tool Innovation. Cutting, N., Chappell, J., Apperly, I.A. & Beck, S.R. (2014) Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. PDF

Representation, Control or Reasoning? Distinct Functions for Theory of Mind within the Medial Prefrontal Cortex. Hartwright, C., Apperly, I.A., & Hansen, P.C. (2013) Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26(4), 683-698.  PDF

The use of embodied self-rotation for visual and spatial perspective-takingSurtees, A., Apperly, I.A. & Samson (2013). Frontiers in Cognition, 7, 698. PDF


Similarities and differences in visual and spatial perspective-taking processes. Surtees, A., Apperly, I.A. & Samson, D. (2013). Cognition, 129(2) 426-438. PDF


Seeing it my way or your way: Frontoparietal brain areas sustain viewpoint-independent perspective selection processes. Ramsey, R., Hansen, P.C., Apperly I.A & Samson, D. (2013).Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 25(5), 670-8. PDF


Developmental differences in the control of action selection by social information. Dumontheil. I., Hillebrandt, H., Apperly, I.A. & Blakemore, S-J. (2012) Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.24(10), 2080-2095. PDF

Multiple roles for executive control in belief-desire reasoning: Distinct neural networks are recruited for self perspective inhibition and complexity of reasoning. Hartwright, C., Apperly, I.A., & Hansen, P.C. (2012) Neuroimage(61(4), 921-930 . PDF

How do novel response modes help 3- to 4-year-olds to act on rules that induce response conflict? Carroll, D.J., Apperly, I.A, Riggs,K.J. & Graham, K. (2012). Cognitive Development,112(3), 312-325. PDF

Tool innovation may be a critical limiting step for the establishment of a rich tool-using culture: a perspective from child development. Commentary on Vaesen. Beck, S.R., Chappell, J., Apperly, I.A. & Cutting, N. (2012). Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 34(4), 220.

Direct and indirect measures of Level-2 perspective-taking in children and adults. Surtees, A., Butterfill, S. & Apperly, I.A. (2012). British Journal of Developmental Psychology 30 (1), 75-86 PDF

Egocentrism and automatic perspective-taking in children and adults. Surtees, A. & Apperly, I.A. (2012). Child Development. 83 (2), 452–460.PDF

Sometimes losing your self in space: spontaneous use of intrinsic and relative spatial reference frames in children and adults. Surtees, A., Noordzij, M.L. & Apperly, I.A. (2012). Developmental Psychology.48(1), 185-191. PDF

The neural and cognitive time-course of theory of mind. McCleery, J.P., Surtees, A., Graham, K.A., Richards, J. & Apperly, I.A. (2011). Journal of Neuroscience.31(36): 12849 –12854  PDF

Repeating words in sentences: effects of sentence structure. Wheeldon, L., Smith, M.C. & Apperly, I.A. (2011). JEP:LMC37(5), 1051-1064.   


Developmental continuity in theory of mind: Speed and accuracy of belief-desire reasoning in children and adults. Apperly,I.A., Warren, F., Andrews, B.J., Grant, J. & Todd, S. (2011). Child Development. 82(5), 1691-703.   PDF


Cognitive Correlates of the Out-of-Body-Experience (OBE) in the Psychologically Normal Population: Evidence for an increased Role of Temporal-lobe Instability, Body-distortion Processing, and impairments in Own-Body-Transformations. Braithwaite, J.J., Samson, D., Apperly, I.A., Boglia, E., & Hulleman, J. (2011) Cortex.


ChildrenŐs Tool Innovation Difficulties: A Mental Flexibility Problem? Cutting, N., Apperly, I.A. & Beck, S.R. (2011). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 119, 301-306. PDF

Making tools isnŐt childŐs play. Beck, S.R., Apperly, I.A., Chappell, J., Guthrie, C. & Cutting, N. (2011). Cognition.119, 301-306. PDF

There is more to mind reading than having theory of mind concepts: New directions in theory of mind research. Samson, D. & Apperly, I.A. (2010). Infant and Child Development. 19, 443-454. PDF


Executive function is necessary for perspective-selection, not Level-1 visual perspective-calculation: Evidence from a dual-task study of adults. Qureshi, A., Apperly, I.A. & Samson, D. (2010). Cognition, 117(2), 230-236.PDF


Distinguishing intentions from desires: contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes. Chiavarino, C., Apperly, I.A. & Humphreys, G.W. (2010) Cognition, 117(2), 203-216. PDF


Taking perspective into account in a communication task. Dumontheil, I., Kuster, O., Apperly, I.A. & Blakemore, S-J. (2010). Neuroimage 52(4) 1574-1583. PDF


Seeing it their way: Evidence for rapid and involuntary computation of what other people see. Samson, D., Apperly, I.A., Braithwaite, J. & Andrews, B. (2010). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.36(5), 1255-1266. PDF


Two sources of evidence on the non-automaticity of true and false belief ascription. Back, E., & Apperly, I.A. (2010). Cognition, 115(1), 54-70. . PDF


Why are there limits on theory of mind use? Evidence from adultsŐ ability to follow instructions from an ignorant speaker. Apperly, I.A., Carroll, D.J., Samson,D., Qureshi, A., Humphreys, G.W. & Moffatt, G. (2010). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. PDF


Online use of mental state inferences continues to develop in late adolescence. Dumontheil, I., Apperly, I.A., & Blakemore, S.J. (2010).Developmental Science, 13(2), 331-8. PDF

Two routes to perspective: imagination and rule-use may be better than simulation and theorising. Commentary on Mitchell et al. (2009). Apperly, I.A. (2009). British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 27, 545-553 PDF

Frontal and parietal lobe involvement in the recognition of pretence and intention. Chiavarino, C., Apperly, I.A. & Humphreys, G.W. (2009). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.62(9), 1738-1756. PDF

How do symbols affect 3- to 4-year-oldsŐ executive function? Evidence from a strategic reasoning task. Apperly, I.A & Carroll, D.J., (2009). Developmental Science. 12(6), 1070-1082. PDF

The effect of action goal hierarchy on the coding of object orientation in imitation tasks: Evidence from patients with left parietal lobe damage. Chiavarino, C., Apperly, I.A. & Humphreys, G.W. (2008). Cognitive Neuropsychology, 25)7-8), 1011-1026. PDF

The cost of thinking about false beliefs: Evidence from adult performance on a non-inferential theory of mind task. Apperly, I.A., Back, E., Samson, D. & France, L. (2008). Cognition, 106, 1093-1108. PDF

Choosing between two objects reduces 3-year-olds errors on a reverse-contingency test of executive function. Carroll, D.J., Apperly, I.A & Riggs,K.J. (2007). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 98(3), 184-192. PDF

Error analyses reveal contrasting deficits in "theory of mind": Neuropsychological evidence from a 3-option false belief task.  Samson, D., Apperly, I.A., & Humphreys, G.W. (2007). Neuropsychologia45(11), 2561-2569. PDF

Is theory of mind understanding impaired in males with fragile X Syndrome? Grant, C.M., Apperly, I.A. & Oliver, C. (2007). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(1) 17-28. PDF

Exploring the functional and anatomical bases of mirror-image and anatomical imitation: the role of the frontal lobes. Chiavarino, C., Apperly, I.A. & Humphreys, G.W. (2007). Neuropsychologia, 45(4) 784-795. PDF

The executive demands of strategic reasoning are modified by the way in which children are prompted to think about the task: Evidence from 3-to 4-year-olds. Carroll, D.J., Apperly, I.A. & Riggs,K.J. (2007). Cognitive Development, 22(1), 142-148. PDF

Testing the domain-specificity of a theory of mind deficit in brain-injured patients: evidence for consistent performance on non-verbal, 'reality-unknown' false belief and false photograph tasks. Apperly, I.A., Samson, D., Chiavarino, C., Bickerton, W. & Humphreys, G.W. (2007). Cognition, 103, 300-321. PDF

Intact 1st and 2nd order false belief reasoning in a patient with severely impaired grammar.  Apperly, I.A., Samson, D., Carroll, N., Hussain, S., & Humphreys, G.W. (2006). Social Neuroscience, Special issue on theory of mind, 1(3-4), 334-348. PDF

Children's Sensitivity to Their Own Relative Ignorance: Handling of Possibilities Under Conditions of Epistemic and Physical Uncertainty. Robinson, E.J., Rowley, M.J., Beck, S.R., Carroll, D.J., & Apperly, I.A. (2006) Child Development 77(6), 1642-1655. PDF

Is belief reasoning automatic? Apperly, I.A., Riggs, K.J., Simpson, A., Samson, D., & Chiavarino, C. (2006). Psychological Science.17(10) 841-844 PDF

ChildrenŐs thinking about counterfactuals and future hypotheticals as possibilities. Beck, S.R., Robinson, E.J., Carroll, D.J., & Apperly, I.A. (2006). Child Development 77(2), 413-426 PDF

Seeing it my way: A case of selective deficit in inhibiting self-perspective.Samson, D., Apperly, I.A., Kathirgamanathan, U. & Humphreys, G.W. (2005).  Brain. 128, 1102-1111. PDF

Frontal and temporo-parietal lobe contribution to Theory of Mind: Neuropsychological evidence from a false belief task with reduced language and executive demands. Apperly, I.A., Samson, D., Chiavarino, C. & Humphreys, G.W. (2004). Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16(10) 1773-1784 PDF

Three- to four-year-oldsŐ recognition that symbols have a stable meaning: Pictures are understood before written words. Apperly, I.A., Williams, E. & Williams, J. (2004). Child Development, 75(5) 1510-1522. PDF

The left temporo-parietal junction is necessary for representing someone elseŐs belief. Samson, D., Apperly, I.A., Chiavarino, C. & Humphreys, G.W. (2004)  Nature Neuroscience, 7(5) 449-500. PDF (Supp. methods)

False belief reasoning and the acquisition of relative clause sentences. Smith, M., Apperly, I.A. & White, V. (2003) Child Development 74(6) 1709-1719 PDF

When can children handle referential opacity? Evidence for systematic variation in 5-6 year old childrenŐs reasoning about beliefs and belief reports. Apperly, I.A. & Robinson, E.J. (2003). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 85(4) 297-311 PDF

Five year oldsŐ handling of reference and description in the domains of language and mental representation. Apperly, I.A. & Robinson, E.J. (2002). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83(1), 53-75 PDF

When can children handle referential opacity? Evidence for systematic variation in 5-6 year old childrenŐs reasoning about beliefs and belief reports. Apperly, I.A. & Robinson, E.J. (2003). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 85(4) 297-311 PDF

Five year oldsŐ handling of reference and description in the domains of language and mental representation. Apperly, I.A. & Robinson, E.J. (2002). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83(1), 53-75 PDF

ChildrenŐs difficulties handling dual identity. Apperly, I.A., & Robinson, E.J. (2001). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 78, 374-397. PDF

Problems with partial representations explain childrenŐs related difficulties with ambiguous messages and referentially opaque contexts. Robinson, E.J. & Apperly, I.A. (2001). Cognitive Development. 16(1), 595-615. PDF

ChildrenŐs mental representation of referential relations. Apperly, I.A., & Robinson, E.J. (1998). Cognition, 67,287-309. PDF

AdolescentsŐ and adultsŐ views about the evidential basis for beliefs: Relativism and determinism re-examined. Robinson, E.J.Apperly, I.A. (1998). Developmental Science, 1 279-290. PDF



Children's mental representation of referential relations: Representational partitioning and 'theory of mind'. University of Birmingham, 1999. Supervised by Prof. Elizabeth Robinson. PDF.